Monday 30 March 2009

Nugget 225

I hope to collect the latest issue of THE NUGGET from the printers tomorrow and I should be able to post it out to members later this week.

I hope to upload the PDF version of the latest issue of THE NUGGET to the Wargame Developments website on Thursday so that members (including e-members) can read it before the printed version arrives in the post.

And now for something completely different ...

After spending so much time and effort of late preparing for Cruiser 2009 and Salute 2009, and with COW 2009* not taking place until July, I can now think about doing some work on one or two of my other wargaming 'projects'.

I am not yet sure which project will get my attention first. I still intend to fight at least one more battle from the Lauranian Border War using the TABLE TOP BATTLES rules, and I also want to try out the naval wargame rules in the book. Doing the latter will require at least four suitable ship models to be built, and building them from scratch should not be too difficult or time consuming. It would also give me the opportunity to explain the processes I use.

I am also very taken with the idea of re-fighting the War of the Pacific, particularly as I own what is currently the definitive uniform guide for the three warring armies (UNIFORMES DE LA GUERRA DEL PACIFICO 1879 – 1884). The land and sea battles that were fought were all quite small, and could easily be re-created using the TABLE TOP BATTLES rules. Although there are no figure ranges available for the Bolivians, Chileans, and Peruvians, the uniforms are very similar to the French, German, and US uniforms of the period, and could be reproduced with a reasonable degree of accuracy using paint ‘conversions’.

The Eastern Front has fascinated me for a very long time, and now that I have two sets of suitable solo rules to use – my own mid-20th century variant of TABLE TOP BATTLES and RED FLAGS AND IRON CROSSES (TARRED AND FEATHERSTONED) – I am very tempted to start expanding my Russian and Axis forces.

In addition to all of the above, I also want to re-fight the Bay of Pigs incident, re-build my Spanish Civil War armies, inject some life into the presently stagnant colonial campaign I started some years ago, and build up some small armies for the post-World War I Wars of Independence that took place around the edge of the Baltic Sea.

So many potential projects; where should I start?

*For those of you who don't know, COW is the Conference of Wargamers, which is the Wargame Developments annual conference. It takes place at a local authority-owned country house in Northamptonshire from early Friday evening until late Sunday afternoon.

Sunday 29 March 2009

Solferino in Thirty Minutes – A report on how the Salute 2009 games went

I must admit, although I knew the game was a good one, I was unprepared for the response it received from a lot of people who stopped to watch or to take part. One passer-by even asked when the game would be on sale, as he wanted to buy a copy!

So how did it go?

Well during the course of the seven hours from opening time at 10.00 am until closing time at 5.00 pm the game was played through at least eight times to my knowledge. Amongst those who commanded the French or the Austrians were several past and present members of Wargame Developments, a chap whose name I do not know but who always makes a point of playing the WD participation game at Salute, and a retired Major General who served in the Royal Engineers.

The results were very interesting; in five of the seven games I witnessed, the French achieved a marginal victory by capturing Solferino, retaining Medole, but not capturing Cavriana or Guidizzolo. In the other two instances the Austrians not only managed to retain Solferino but also managed to push back the French troops commanded by General Niel. The crucial factor in both of these cases was the Austrian 2nd Army Cavalry, which should have retreated in the face of the advancing French, but did not.

Several ‘improvements’ have been suggested; for example, making the composition of the deck of activation cards more random and giving the Austrian artillery the same range as the French artillery. Although these suggestions are good ones, they would change the nature of the game, which is – essentially – a re-fight of an historical battle. That said, several people have indicated that they intend to use the basic game mechanisms to re-fight other nineteenth century battles such as Chancellorsville and Fröschwiller.

Richard Brooks (the game's designer and the author of the newly published Osprey book about the Battle of Solferino), Ian Drury (a long-time member of Wargame Developments and also a prolific game designer and author), and Alex Kleanthous (the current editor of The Nugget), having a quick run through of the game.

Richard Brooks looking somewhat astonished (or possibly even alarmed!) as I try to photograph the game over his shoulder. During this run through I commanded the Austrians ... and made a right mess of things!
- o 0 o -

The following summary was given to all the players and to interested passers by.

Player Summary


The battle of Solferino was fought in Northern Italy on 24 June 1859 between a Franco-Sardinian army commanded by Napoleon III and an Austrian Army under Kaiser Franz Josef. The latter’s defeat made possible the unification of Italy during the 1860s.

Military Significance:

Solferino was the first major battle where both sides used rifled muskets, supported on the French side by rifled field guns. The last great battle in the Napoleonic tradition, it foreshadowed the mass industrial wars of the future.

Game Design:

Solferino was a very large battle, involving 259,000 combatants, on a 12 mile frontage, and lasting 15 hours. Wargaming so large a conflict in a convenient time and space demands a high level of abstraction.

The Board:

Represents the 6-mile square central part of the battlefield where the French engaged the Austrian main body. Its chequered pattern reflects the patchwork of fields south of the ridge around Solferino village, and defines frontages, ranges and movement.

Playing Pieces:

Represent divisions of Cavalry, Infantry, or Guards, their supporting Artillery, and Commanders-in-Chief. Set up as at 9 a.m. following the initial contacts.

Game System:

Simple mechanisms bring out key features of the fighting:

  • Personalised command cards transfer initiative to different sectors of the battlefield.
  • Chess-like movement encourages historically appropriate manoeuvres.
  • Combat resolution rewards combined arms tactics and intelligent placing of commanders.
  • Limited duration: The game ends when all cards are drawn: rain ended the battle at 5 p.m.
  • 1 square any direction, except infantry & guards only move forward/diagonally/backwards.
  • Cavalry may also make a knight’s move, but not over enemy occupied squares.
  • Towns are impassable to guns and cavalry; Cavalry never enter ridge squares.
  • Cavalry and infantry never stack; artillery and C-in-Cs may do so.
  • No diagonal movement between enemy units or past enemy directly in front.
  • Players only move own units, except Napoleon may let MacMahon move his artillery or a Guard unit. MacMahon may transfer a cavalry division to Niel.
  • Austrian Armies never cross the centre line of the board, except cavalry.
  1. Count attacking and supporting units able to enter/fire into enemy square under attack:
    • French guns have 1 or 2 squares range.
    • C-in-Cs never initiate combat.
    • Max 1 attack per unit per turn.
    • No attacks at <= odds.
  2. Multiply by Average Dice (+1 French attack/C-in-C adjacent).
  3. Defending unit rolls Average Dice (+1 friendly artillery or C-in-C adjacent):
    x3 Built up area; x2 French guns or any infantry in open; Else x1.
  4. Compare scores: Attacker>=Defender x2: Defender annihilated; Attacker >=Defender x1: Defender retreats; Otherwise no change.

French must take Solferino and retain Medole for a marginal victory, and take Cavriana or Guidizzolo for a decisive victory. Otherwise the Austrians win.

Salute 2009 – A short report

In spite of having a very heavy cold I managed to make it to Salute 2009 to help run the Wargame Developments game SOLFERINO IN THIRTY MINUTES. I was kept very busy helping to run the numerous games the members of WD put on during the day; however, I did manage to walk around the show and take a few pictures of the games that really took my eye.

The Battle of Wagram (Newark Irregulars)

This 6mm re-fight of one of the largest battles of the Napoleonic Wars looked spectacular. I was particularly impressed with the terrain, which combined simplicity with effectiveness, and the figures. There is nothing to beat 6mm figures en masse to give the impression of the sheer numbers of men who fought in these huge battles.

It was also nice to meet Steve of Newark Irregulars (seen below in the green T-shirt), who follows this blog and who went out of his way to come over to the Wargame Developments table to introduce himself.

The Battle of Jarama (Nick Eyre)

The Spanish Civil War is one of my ‘pet’ periods, and any game that recreates battles from that conflict always catches my eye. This was no exception. Yet again, the terrain was simple but effective, and the 28mm figures looked superb. Unfortunately I did not have enough time to stop and talk to Nick, who was in deep discussion with an onlooker when I made my visit.

The Battle of Novara (Continental Wars Society)

As any regular visitor to my blog would have gathered, games that use a gridded playing surface always get my attention, and this game certainly managed that!

The playing surface appeared to be some sort of printed patchwork (probably curtain or blind material) and the figures were 40mm ‘toy’ soldiers.

The whole thing looked like it had been brought by time machine from the late nineteenth century. I loved the ‘look’ of the whole thing … and furthermore, the people playing the game seemed to be having FUN! This was something that was missing on one or two other games that I passed on my walk round the hall.

The Great War in Italy - The Battle of the Piave (Scarab Miniatures)

As I use Kallistra Hexon II terrain in many of my games, the sight of its use here drew me over to look.

Unfortunately I was not able to track down which group was running the game, but the new 28mm trenches that Kallistra are now making looked very impressive, as did the figures.

Other highlights

Steve the Wargamer – another blog follower – introduced himself towards the end of the day and we managed to have a nice chat before we went out separate ways. I also saw and talked to a lot of old wargaming friends, particularly the members of the South East Essex Military Society who were running their World War I air combat game and to Duncan Macfarlane. Now that Duncan has given up editing wargames magazines after doing it for over 25 years, he told me that he would be taking a sabbatical for a year before beginning work on expanding his range of figures. I wish him well, and hope that his next venture is as successful and long lasting as his magazines have been.

General impressions

  • There was a lot more space than in previous years, which made it feel less claustrophobic in the hall;
  • I find the lighting in the venue – along with the ventilation – very oppressive, and the flooring is very tiring on the feet if you have to stand for too long;
  • The guide – which was produced by Wargames Soldiers & Strategy – was excellent;
  • There were a lot of traders who seemed to be doing a reasonable trade BUT there were one or two ‘regulars’ – Irregular Miniatures – who seemed to be ‘missing’. With so many wargames manufactures and suppliers based in the Midlands and Northern England it is perhaps not surprising that they may have preferred to go to Triples rather than to make the journey to London.

Friday 27 March 2009

The name may have changed ... but the game is the same!

After a number of play-tests SOLFERINO IN TWENTY MINUTES has been renamed SOLFERINO IN THIRTY MINUTES.

This is the only change that has been made, and other than a few last minute bits that need to be printed off – for example, the summary sheet for the players – everything is ready for Salute tomorrow.

If you are going to Salute, please pop by the Wargame Developments stand and say hello ... and if you have time, try out the game.

Monday 23 March 2009

Feedback from visitors always welcome

This is the 100th blog entry I have written, and it is appropriate that I use it to thank all the visitors to my blog who have made comments. You have all been very positive and helpful, and have encouraged me to push forward with various projects that might otherwise have languished in the 'to do someday' pile. Now that I have got the blogging 'bug' I intend to continue to blog as often as I can, if only because the drive to write about something is a great incentive to actually do it!

Many thanks!

Sunday 22 March 2009

Solferino in Twenty Minutes – my work is done!

I finally managed to complete everything that I need for SOLFERINO IN TWENTY MINUTES, although I still need to print off the handouts for the players and spectators once Richard Brooks sends them to me.

To get some idea what the game will look like at Salute, I laid out the playing board, added the built-up areas, and placed the playing pieces in what I think are their correct locations; the result looks like this:

The activation cards represent each of the major commanders present at the Battle of Solferino:

Now I can take a bit of a rest from the nineteenth century … until next Saturday when Richard and I shall be running the game at Salute. I hope I will see some of the visitors to my blog there, and maybe they may be able to play the game. In the meantime, I might actually manage to make a list of what I am going to buy at the show.

Solferino in Twenty Minutes – better built-up areas

Having read the feedback given to my entry about the built-up area ‘boxes’ I had made, I decided to try to make an improved version.

My first attempt was to print on both sides of the card so that the inside of the box was not so stark, but I could not get my Inkjet printer to print on both sides of the card with the level of precision that this needed.

My second attempt was to print on coloured card – I chose a buff colour to try to match the colour of the buildings – and whilst it was less stark than the white card still did not look quite right.

One problem that I had with the ‘boxes’ was how intrusive they looked when placed on the playing board. I wondered if cutting the ‘boxes’ on the diagonal might make them less intrusive, and so I tried it. The result looked much better.

I sat down at my computer, and using the desktop publishing programme I had used to design the original ‘boxes’, I manipulated my designs so that I could print a corner unit that had pictures of the relevant buildings (and the name of the built-up area) on the back and front of the two sides of the corner unit. The result is shown below:

I printed off a trial piece, and after gluing, cutting, and folding it I glued it on to a triangular piece of mounting board. The resulting built-up area is shown below:

It has turned out to be much better than I hoped, and I will be using this method to make the other built-up areas that I need for the game. They are printed on both sides – and are therefore less stark – and take up less room on the playing board – and are therefore less intrusive. A side effect of this change has meant that they can be stored in even less space, as they will stack together. All this came about because of the feedback I got from visitors to this blog … thank you!

Solferino in Twenty Minutes – problems with the playing pieces

I designed the playing pieces for SOLFERINO IN TWENTY MINUTES so that when they were printed on A4 card, all I would have to do was fold them along the middle, glue them, and then trim them. I tried to do this on Friday evening … and discovered that whatever glue I tried to use (including PVA and Pritt Stick), the card absorbed it in such a way that when it had dried the playing pieces were warped or distorted.

I persisted, and several attempts later I had some playing pieces cut and ready to put into the plastic cards stands I had bought. Then my second problem reared its ugly head … they were too top heavy for the stands and would not stand upright!

By now I was beginning to feel a bit desperate. So I did what my wife always advises me to do when this happens … walk away from the problem and give it some ‘think time’. I went to bed and tried to sleep. As I was just dozing off I had an idea; print the images and text from the original playing pieces on to small labels, stick the labels to both sides of a blank business card, and then laminate them.

On Saturday morning I set of for the local business supplies store and bought everything I needed. The labels took a bit of time to get just right, but once I had set up the template correctly everything went like clockwork. By just after lunchtime I had a very neat pile of laminated playing pieces and activation cards (also printed onto blank business cards and then laminated) that fitted into the plastic card stands perfectly.

To all intents and purposes everything is now ready for Salute … but the feedback from visitors to my blog about the built-up area ‘boxes’ I have made has given me food for thought and I may have a re-think about them.

Thursday 19 March 2009

Solferino in Twenty Minutes – the completed built-up areas

I have now finished the four built-up areas – Solferino, Cavriana, Guidizzolo, and Medole – needed for SOLFERINO IN TWENTY MINUTES, and I am rather pleased with the way they turned out.

As can be seen for the images, the sides of each ‘box’ are made from printed card, and the bottom is reinforced with a square of mounting board. The latter gives the ‘box’ both weight and stiffness.

Wednesday 18 March 2009

Solferino in Twenty Minutes – making the built-up areas

I need to create four built-up areas that units can be placed in for SOLFERINO IN TWENTY MINUTES. The trouble is that normal 3D buildings would look nice but would make it difficult to place units inside the built-up area.

After some serious thinking about how to create these built-up areas, I have come up with the following idea; to make 4” square boxes with images of Italian buildings printed on the outside. They will give the illusion of being a solid mass of buildings but will permit units to be placed inside the box.

I experimented with some images of Italian buildings that I downloaded from the Internet, and the concept seems to work. However, the Internet has not proved to be a very good source of images of ordinary, rather than famous historical, Italian buildings, and in the end I solved the problem by taking digital photos of suitable model buildings from my collection and using Adobe Photoshop to manipulate them.

The results are very acceptable, and I am now in the process of creating my ‘boxes’ using MS Publisher.

Saturday 14 March 2009

Solferino in Twenty Minutes – the playing board

The playing board for SOLFERINO IN TWENTY MINUTES:

It is made up of sixty-four 4" squares and measures just over 32" in each direction.

Friday 13 March 2009

Solferino in Twenty Minutes – the playing board is finished

It took me more time than I had originally expected to make the playing board for SOLFERINO IN TWENTY MINUTES, but it is now complete.

To all intents and purposes it is a large, two-tone green chessboard made from 4” squares. It has a thin bead of black around the edge. This was added to tidy up the look of the whole thing.

So the board is made, the playing pieces and activation cards have been designed and printed. All I need to make now are the built-up areas, and then the play-testing can begin … assuming that Richard and I can arrange a mutually convenient time and place. No problems!

Thursday 12 March 2009

Solferino in Twenty Minutes - making the playing board

On Tuesday morning I managed to buy the mounting board from which I am making the playing board for SOLFERINO IN TWENTY MINUTES, and I began work this morning. However, after about an hour's work I realised that it just did not look right. I tried a couple of the playing pieces on the half-finished board ... and immediately saw the problem; I had made the squares too small.

I had thought that 3" squares would be large enough, and had begun making the playing board with squares of that size. I have now started again using 4" squares (which are nearly twice the area of the 3" squares) and the new board looks much better even though it is quite a bit larger.

With any luck I should finish it later today (I have to allow the PVA glue to dry after I have laid about 16 of the 4" squares onto the back board), and I may even be able to play-test the rules within the week. The timing of the play-test depends upon when Richard and I can get together for a long enough session to run through the game and to debug any problems that might arise.

Monday 9 March 2009

A busy weekend ... and hopefully a less busy week

I had a busy few days this past weekend, but I did manage to write several articles for THE NUGGET (the journal of Wargame Developments). These included:
  • A review of the TABLE TOP BATTLES wargames rules;
  • A synopsis of my World War II hex-based variant of the basic TABLE TOP BATTLES wargames rules;
  • A report on the Cruiser 2009 event that was held aboard HMS Belfast on Saturday 28th February 2009.
With any luck I should be able to buy the materials I need to make the playing boards for SOLFERINO IN TWENTY MINUTES tomorrow morning, and then start making them on Thursday.

Friday 6 March 2009

Preparing for Salute 2009

With Salute 2009 only three weeks away I have been spending quite a bit of time this week preparing for the game Richard Brooks and I will be staging on behalf of Wargame Developments.

The game is entitled SOLFERINO IN TWENTY MINUTES, and it uses a large playing board (which I have yet to make), playing pieces (printed on cardboard and designed to stand upright), and activation cards (printed on push-out business cards).

I have been designing and printing proof copies of the artwork that will be used on the playing pieces and activation cards as well as mock-ups of the final designs. Once Richard and I have decided that the designs are 'fit-for-purpose' it will only take an hour or so to produce all the playing pieces and activation cards, and then I can concentrate on making the playing board.

The playing pieces represent divisions or army artillery. They are printed, folded in half, and then separated so that they can be fixed into stands.

The activation cards are printed on to push-out business cards. When a card is turned over the units controlled by the named commander are activated.

Wednesday 4 March 2009

The Game of Naval Blockade

The following rules are used to play Lieutenant H Chamberlain's Game of Naval Blockade:

The Game Apparatus
  1. A dice marked as specified in Rule 13;
  2. A dice cup;
  3. A playing boards (24 x 24 one-inch squares);
  4. A Blockader (with a white hull, armed with one bow chaser gun and one gun on each broadside);
  5. A Blockade Runner (with a black hull, armed with one stern chaser gun and one gun on each broadside);
  6. Four Islands (each five squares in area);
  7. Two Rocks (each one square inch in area).
The Rules of The Game
  1. Choose sides and place the vessels as follows:
    The Blockade Runner on one of the squares in the centre of the South edge of the board, heading North;
    The Blockader on one of the six squares in the North East or North West corners of the board, heading East or West respectively.
  2. The players toss up, and the winner places the Islands and Rocks, aligned with the squares marked on the board, as follows:
      not less than five clear squares from the mainland (i.e. the South edge of the board) AND,
      not less than one clear square from the North, East, or West edges of the board AND,
      not less than one clear square from each other.
      As for Islands but may be closer to the mainland (i.e. not less than one clear square away from the South edge of the board).
    • The first move is made by the player who lost the toss.
    • Move one square at a time, alternately, except as specified by Rules 16 and 17.
    • Stopping is not allowed, except when disabled. (See Rule 16)
    • Course may be altered by four points, to Port or Starboard, each turn (i.e. 45 degrees) at the beginning of the turn.
    • The Speed of the two ships is equal, except when disabled.
    • Going astern is never allowed, even to avoid being rammed.
    • The Blockade Runner wins if it gains open sea (i.e. by moving on to any square on the North edge of the board).
    • The Blockade Runner may not return to harbour voluntarily: if forced to do so, the Blockader wins the game.
    • The Armament of the ships is as follows:
        One heavy gun on each broadside, with a 90 degree arc of fire (i.e. 45 degrees from the fore and aft line);
        The Blockader has a bow chaser, with an arc of 45 degrees either side of the fire and aft line;
        The Blockade Runner has a stern chaser, with an arc of 45 degrees either side of the fire and aft line:
    • Ships are in range when separated by ten or less clear squares, counted along the North-South or East-West lines only, never diagonally. Any distortion this may cause is deliberately intended to introduce an element of chance, to represent the effect of smoke, or guns not being loaded when they bear, due to lack of communication between the conning tower and the gundeck. For example:
        10 squares due N-S or due E-W = 10 i.e. within range;
        2 squares due N-S +8 due E-W = 10 i.e. within range;
        7 squares due N-S +3 due E-W = 10 i.e. within range.
    • The Firing Dice is marked as follows:
        One side marked D4 (for Disabled and four firing points of damage caused);
        One side marked H2 (for Hit and two firing points of damage caused);
        One side marked H1 (for Hit and one firing points of damage caused);
        Three sides marked M (for Miss).
    • Ships moving and in range may fire any guns that bear. Ships move before firing.
      • Ships may fire over Rocks but not Islands. Use a ruler to establish whether the line of fire is blocked by any intervening Island.
      • A Disabled ship stops and the other immediately moves six squares, altering course as required. No firing is allowed by either side during this movement. If the moving ship finishes on the same square as the Disabled ship, the latter has been rammed. (See Rule 17) Otherwise the Disabled ship is brought back into action, moving one square straight ahead, firing as normal if any guns bear.
          Ships are temporarily Disabled only, unless they are rammed;
          Disabled ships have sufficient way to alter course once;
          A ship disabling its opponent twice in a turn, counts eight points, but only gets one ramming attempt.
      • Successful ramming wins the game, except that the Blockader cannot be rammed head on as she has an armoured bow. If the Blockade Runner rammed the Blockader head on, the Blockade Runner would lose, even though the Blockader had previously been disabled.
      • Hits have no effect on the ship struck, but count towards Victory, if this is not clear. (See Rule 19)
      • Victory rests with the ship that has rammed the other (except under conditions favourable to the Blockader, as defined in Rule 17) OR has driven her ashore OR with the Blockade Runner if she has escaped OR with the Blockader if she has compelled the Blockade Runner to return to harbour. If none of the above pertain, Victory may be claimed by the ship that has registered the largest number of firing points on its opponent.
      This game was originally presented to a meeting of the Royal United Services Institute on 20th April 1888, and was rediscovered by Richard Brooks in the RUSI Journal Vol XXXVII (1888-89).

      Monday 2 March 2009

      Nugget 224

      I will be posting the latest issue of THE NUGGET (N224) tomorrow morning, and it should be with members by later this week.

      The PDF version is now available online via the Wargame Developments website. All members should now have received the password they need to read the PDF, but if they have lost it or cannot remember it they should contact me.

      Sunday 1 March 2009

      Cruiser 2009 - a short photo-report

      The following images give a flavour of the events that took place during Cruiser 2009.

      Michael Curry's DR WHO game pitted soldiers from UNIT against a variety of different aliens. The game proved to be very popular with young and old alike.

      The FLETCHER PRATT NAVAL WAR GAME in full swing. The scenario involved a British attack on a Japanese-held fortified harbour. A Japanese Kongo-class Battle Cruiser was moored just inside the harbour and the British attackers had to try to sink or damage it.

      Tim Price MBE delivering his lecture about THE USE OF WARGAMING IN THE MODERN BRITISH ARMY. Professor Philip Sabin – who is seated in the front row of Tim's lecture – also delivered a very interesting and thought-provoking lecture about USING WARGAMES TO UNDERSTAND MILITARY HISTORY.

      Daniel Shaw's wargame about the 1st BATTLE OF NARVIK was praised by everyone who took part in it.

      James Kemp ran a game about World War I trench raids entitled HOT BLOOD & COLD STEEL. It used terrain created from individual painted offset squares.

      Wayne Thomas attempting to survive a bombing mission over Germany during World War II. ON A WING AND A PRAYER was developed by members of Wargame Developments Display Team North – including Tim Gow seen here running this particular game – and allows players to understand why so few aircrew completed their allotted 30 missions.

      Other games that took place included:
      • DAMAGE CONTROL run by Jim Wallman. This game used deck plans of HMS Belfast, and the players had to repair battle damage – including fires and shell holes as and when it occurred.
      • 'TIS TO GLORY WE STEER run by Jerry Elsmore. This game allows players to experience what it was like trying to climb the promotion ladder in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars.
      • THE GAME OF NAVAL BLOCKADE run by Richard Brooks. This game was originally designed during the later nineteenth century to help young naval officers understand the tactics of imposing – or running – a blockade.